Active voice in academic writing
Passive voice in academic writing pdf
The order of words in a sentence with active voice is subject, verb, object. Active: Four members of the nursing staff observed the handwashing practices of staff during rostered shifts. To create an authoritative tone Visitors are not allowed after p. Expand all. Business Vocabulary in Use: Advanced Third edition with answers: internationally. It is cleaner, clearer, and more concise. To emphasize the action rather than the actor After long debate, the proposal was endorsed by the long-range planning committee.
Another indication of passive voice is when the verb precedes the actor in the sentence. To use the active voice exclusively would be very dull to read indeed!
Active: The ethics committee of the Institute of Gerontology approved this research.
The passive is used to avoid repeated reference to the known doer of the action ie. It is still the only treatment available for diabetes. The observers were drawn from the students who were matriculated into the experimental psychology courses from which this study had been developed as an example of such studies generally.
The number of seeds found in ant nests were counted. A total of 45 teachers responded… Strategies The use of the passive voice is complicated and requires careful attention and skill.
When to use passive voice
Passive voice Active voice In this ideology the argument used to sustain the subjugation of women has largely rested on premises about biological difference - the biological differences between men and women have been used to legitimate hierarchical structures of social inequality. She is courted. Handwashing, or failure to handwash, following patient contact was recorded. Try turning each passive sentence you find into an active one. Active: Two people who had no relationship with New York City conducted the interviews [or, Two people, neither of whom had a relationship with New York City, conducted the interviews]. However, in the art of writing, polarized views often become irrelevant and a balance must be achieved by using the two voices contextually. You will likely find that your new sentence is stronger, shorter, and more precise: Germany invaded Poland in , thus initiating the Second World War. Intentional Use of the Passive Voice Sometimes, even in scholarly writing, the passive voice may be used intentionally and strategically. This solution was then titrated with hydrochloric acid. Here, some disciplines still prefer the passive voice whereas others have largely migrated across to the active. Example 4: Active: Choudhary proposed the methods and principles by which each process in product synthesis could be analyzed. If you are undecided, try rephrasing the sentence in the active voice and asking yourself whether it changes the meaning of your sentence or simply makes your writing clearer or more concise.
Here, some disciplines still prefer the passive voice whereas others have largely migrated across to the active. The text in the active voice focuses on the 'doers', that is society, rather than on women, the people acted on by the actions of others. Start your new sentence with the actor.
Active and passive voice examples with answers
This may be an intentional use of the passive voice, to highlight schools not meeting AYP. It is obvious that it is the author who will be doing the discussing. Example 1: Passive: The interviews were conducted by two people who had no relationship with New York City. Nevertheless, they are becoming more widespread as universities aim for higher standards of consistency in academic writing by their students. Passive sentences can get you into trouble in academic writing because they can be vague about who is responsible for the action: Both Othello and Iago desire Desdemona. I created a convenience sample of 68 teachers. First, some schools, faculties or universities uniformly prefer the passive construct. We can loosely correlat e these styles to the active and passive voice respectively. If you find one, the sentence may be in the passive voice. Example: I conducted a study of job satisfaction and turnover. So, if there is a meaningful purpose for you to inject the passive construct into a sentence, then use it! And since they are usually longer than active sentences, passive sentences take up precious room in your paper: Since the car was being driven by Michael at the time of the accident, the damages should be paid for by him. One strategy to keep readers engaged is sentence variety, such as sentence length or sentence structure, for example.
Active: Researchers earlier showed that high stress can cause heart attacks. Try turning each passive sentence you find into an active one. In addition, in academic writing sometimes it is obvious, irrelevant or repetitive to state who the 'doer' of the sentence is: thus the passive voice is a useful way to construct these types of sentences.
Active: Two people who had no relationship with New York City conducted the interviews [or, Two people, neither of whom had a relationship with New York City, conducted the interviews].
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